PlayStation Studios Wiki

Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a Japanese-American multinational game publisher, console manufacturer and digital entertainment company. It is a subsidiary of Japanese business company Sony Group Corporation.

The company was founded in 1993 following a fallout between Sony and fellow console making company Nintendo which resulted in the former's formal entry into the gaming industry in 1994, with the release of the original PlayStation. Since then, the PlayStation brand has grown to include several successor consoles, handheld platforms and related accessories, as well as presence in mobile and personal computer markets. In 2016, the company was reorganized as Sony Interactive Entertainment following a merger with Sony Network Entertainment International, with headquarters based in San Mateo, California.

Since its inception, SIE has founded and acquired several game development studios while relinquishing or closing others. Beginning with 2005, the majority of those studios operate under PlayStation Studios (formerly Worldwide Studios), which oversees the development of video game titles and cooperation between various teams within and outside the company. SIE also manages other subsidiaries and divisions including PlayStation Studios Creative Arts, PlayStation PC publisher unit, PlayStation Studios Mobile Division for mobile game development, PlayStation Productions for film and television adaptations, the Evolution Championship Series and multiplatform developer-publisher Bungie.

SIE is the world's biggest video game publisher in terms of revenue as of 2021, and one of the major platform holders and console manufactures of the gaming industry since the launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994. Among its most prominent franchises are Astro Bot, God of War, Gran Turismo, Horizon, The Last of Us, Ratchet & Clank and Uncharted, as well as licensed properties such as MLB: The Show and Marvel Games franchises Spider-Man and Wolverine.



Sony Computer Entertainment was founded on November 16, 1993, by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment of Japan. The new division's creation was meant to help Sony's venture into the video game industry, following a publicized fallout with fellow game company and platform holder Nintendo. Ken Kutaragi, who was a prominent part of the Sony-Nintendo deal and previously designed the sound chip for Nintendo's Super NES, became the primary designer of the division's first major product, the PlayStation.

PlayStation 1 era

PlayStation 2 era

PlayStation 3 era

PlayStation 4 era

PlayStation 5 era


CEOs and Presidents

SCE America
  • Kaz Hirai: until 2006
  • Jack Tretton: 2006 - 2014
  • Shawn Layden: 2014 - 2018
SCE Japan
  • Shawn Layden: 2007 - 2010

SIE Worldwide Studios

Heads of Worldwide Studios

  • Shawn Layden: 2018 - 2019

Divisions and subsidiaries

Studio Location Founded Acquired Notable products Additional notes
Bend Studio Bend, Oregon, US 1993 2000 Syphon Filter, Resistance: Retribution, Uncharted: Golden Abyss, Days Gone Originally called Eidetic prior to acquisition
Bluepoint Games Austin, Texas, US 2006 2001 Shadow of the Colossus remake, Demon's Souls remake Primarily focuses on remasters and remakes
Firesprite Liverpool, UK 2012 2021 Horizon Call of the Mountain Founded by former Studio Liverpool veterans
Guerrilla Games Amsterdam, Netherlands 2000 2005 Games: Killzone, Horizon
Technology: Decima engine
Biggest European studio in PlayStation Studios
Housemarque Helsinki, Finland 1995 2021 Super Stardust, Resogun, Returnal n / a
Insomniac Games Burbank, California, US 1994 2019 Spyro the Dragon, Ratchet & Clank, Resistance, Marvel's Spider-Man Includes satellite studio Insomniac North Carolina
London Studio London, UK 2002 n / a Games: SingStar, Blood & Truth
Technology: EyeToy, PlayStation VR
Formed from the merger of Studio Liverpool's Camden studio and Team Soho
Media Molecule Guildford, Surrey, UK 2006 2010 LittleBigPlanet, Tearaway, Dreams n / a
Naughty Dog Santa Monica, California, US 1984 2001 Crash Bandicoot, Jak and Daxter, Uncharted, The Last of Us Oldest studio at PlayStation Studios
PixelOpus San Mateo, California, US 2014 n / a Concrete Genie Formed within San Mateo Studio
Polyphony Digital Tokyo, Japan 1998 n / a Gran Turismo, Tourist Trophy Informally organized in 1994 as Polys Entertainment; has additional satellite studios in Japan, the United States and the Netherlands
San Diego Studio San Diego, US 2001 n / a MLB: The Show Formed from the merger of Red Zone Interactive and 989 Sports
Santa Monica Studio Los Angeles, US 1998 n / a God of War, Kinetica engine Had an incubation team between 2000 and 2016
Sucker Punch Productions Bellevue, Washington, US 1997 2011 Sly Cooper, Infamous, Ghost of Tsushima n / a
Team Asobi Tokyo, Japan 2021 n / a Astro Bot Founded as an internal team at Japan Studio in 2012 before spinning-off into an independent studio in 2021

Support teams

Former studios

Former divisions

Former subsidiaries

  • 989 Studios - founded in 1995, relaunched in 2001, closed in 2005
  • Bigbig Studios - founded in 2001, acquired in 2007, closed in 2012
  • Evolution Studios - founded in 1999, acquired in 2007, closed in 2016
  • Icognito Entertainment - founded in 1999, acquired in 2002, closed in 2009
  • Team Soho - founded in 1994, merged into SCE Liverpool Studio in 2002
  • Zipper Interactive - founded in 1995, acquired in 2006, closed in 2012

Franchises owned by Sony



Metacritic ranked Sony Interactive Entertainment as 2022's Publisher of the Year with a mean score of 85.6%.[1]